Compliance under The Inter-State Migrant Workmen Act, 1979 : Mandate vs Ground Realities

With growing industrialisation, workers migrate because of the booming economy in some states, which provide them with more work opportunities. The organisations with their base in these relatively developed states, in turn, employ such workers in ancillary activities like housekeeping, security, construction, etc. As such workers whose services are requisitioned outside their native states in India now constitute part of the mainstream workforce, their adequate regulation and proper becomes imperative. An important legislation which regulates their conditions of service is The Inter-State Migrant Workmen (Regulation of Employment and Conditions of Service) Act, 1979.  (The ISMW Act).

The Act is applicable to every establishment in which five or more inter-State migrant workmen are employed or who were employed on any day of the preceding twelve months. The ISMW Act is also applicable to every contractor who employs or who employed five or more inter-State migrant workmen on any day of the preceding twelve months. It is immaterial whether or not such workmen are employed by the Contractor or in the establishment, in addition to other workmen. The conceptual and structural framework of the ISMW Act is similar to The Contract Labour (Regulation and Abolition) Act, 1970, in as much as both delve into the concept of Principal Employer, Contractor and Workman, along with their responsibilities and compliance requirements.

The ‘Inter-State Migrant Workman’ (ISMW) is defined under the Act to mean any person who is recruited by or through the Contractor in one State under an Agreement or other arrangements or employment in an establishment in another State. It is inconsequential whether such employment is whether with or without the knowledge of the Principal Employer of such Establishment.

In essence, the recruitment should have been made in one particular State through a Contractor or other arrangements and he should have been brought to another State in which establishment is located. As an instance, if the person is recruited from another State and brought into Karnataka for working in the establishment through the Contractor or as a direct employee of the employer, only such person will be treated as ISMW. However, if a person belonging to another State directly approaches the employer for employment in Karnataka and if he is given employment by the employer, the ISMW Act does not cover such workmen.

The Act mandates that no Principal Employer of an establishment to which the Act applies shall employ inter-State migrant workmen in the establishment, without obtaining a certificate of registration in respect of such establishment issued under the Act. The Act provides for certain responsibilities on the part of the employer. It mandates that in case such workman performs the same or similar kind of work as is being performed by any other workman in the establishment, the wage rates, holidays, hours of work and other conditions of service of an ISMW shall be the same as those applicable to such other workman. The Act also stipulates clear responsibilities with regard to timely payment of wages. The primary responsibility for payment of wages to the ISMW lies upon the contractor. However, in case the contractor fails to make payment of wages within the prescribed period or makes short payment, then the Principal Employer shall be liable to make payment of the wages in full or the unpaid balance due to the inter-State migrant workman and  recover the same from the Contractor. A notable feature of the law is that it provides for payment of Displacement Allowance and Journey Allowance for the benefit of the ISMW. The Act stipulates stringent sanctions in the event of Contravention of provisions the law. The Act provides for imprisonment and monetary penalty in the event of contravention of the provisions of the law.

Despite existence of stringent framework governing ISMW, challenges exist in the implementation of the law at the ground level. There is a tendency amongst the contractors to escape their coverage under the law by not registering themselves under the Act to avoid compliance costs. In such situation, majority of the migrant workers are not routed through licensed contractors resulting in a huge number of them being excluded from availing any benefit provided under the ISMW Act. Another popular modus operandi by which contractors avoid compliance under the law is mentioning local address of the ISMW in the documents instead of their permanent address in the State from which they have migrated to obtain employment. This may be addressed by ensuring that proper mechanisms are in place to carry out background verification of the Contractor, by whom ISMW are deployed at the establishment of the Principal Employer, prior to such deployment.

The Occupational Safety, Health and Working Conditions Code 2020 (the Code) has been passed by the both the houses of Parliament on 23rd September, 2020, which will replace the existing ISMW Act.  The Code has received the Presidential assent and was published in the Gazette of India on 29th September, 2020.  However, rules in respect of the Code and date on which the Codes would come into force are yet to be notified by the Government of India. The rules, wherever required, will be notified by the Government of India and along with such notification the date on which the Code will come into force will also be notified by Government of India.  The provisions of the Code relating to Inter-State Migrant Workers are applicable to the establishment in which ten or more migrant workers are employed or were employed on any day of the preceding twelve months. Further, Registration of ISMW on the portal on the basis of self-declaration and Aadhaar. The Code provides for portability benefits to ISMW to avail benefits in the destination State in respect of ration and availing benefits of building and other construction worker cess. The Code also provides for creation of Social Security Fund for the welfare of such workers by crediting amounts received from, inter alia, composition of offences and amount of penalty imposed, etc. By introduction of such beneficial provisions, it is believed that the Code will pave the way for greater transparency in regulation of ISMW at the ground level.

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B. Chandrashekar Shetty - Advocate

Mr. Chandrashekar Shetty is a Senior Labour Law Compliance Auditor at BCP Associates and has audited multiple client companies across India. He is also a member of our senior legal advisory practice. Previously he has worked as Deputy Controller, Manager-Industrial Relations and Industrial Relations Officer in KPTCL, Bangalore for more than 30 years. Prior to this, he has dealt with Legal, Personnel and IR matters including Wage Settlements, Grievance Machinery, Manpower Study and Social Security Compliances for about 10 years. He is a Faculty member of Labour Law, HRD Centre, KPTCL Bangalore.

Mr. Shetty holds a B.Com. and L.L.B. degree, Post-Graduate Diploma in Business Administration, Diploma in Public Relations from Bangalore University and PG Diploma in Industrial Relations & Personnel Management from Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan. He is enrolled as Advocate in Karnataka Bar Council and is a Govt. Arbitrator of Chit Funds in Karnataka.

S Venugopal Rao

S Venugopal Rao is an experienced labour law and service matters expert and is a member of the senior advisory team at BCP Associates. Having joined the chambers of Mr. B C Prabhakar in 2012, he is knowledgeable and well versed in multiple employment and labour law topics. S Venugopal Rao holds a Bachelor’s degree in Science from Karnataka University, Dharwar and Bachelor of Law from Bangalore University. He enrolled as advocate in Karantaka State Bar Council in 1976. He joined the chamber of Sri. Kolachalam Srinivasa Rao a leading civil advocate. After practicing for 6 years at Ballari, he joined Orient Paper Mills, Orissa (of G P Birla Group). He was designated as Manager (Law) under the Factories Act in 1995. In 1999, he joined Andhra Pradesh Paper Mills Rajahmundry as Manager Legal and was subsequently elevated as Dy. General Manager (Legal). As Factory Manager & Legal Head, he oversaw compliance of Factories Act and Rules there under towards safety, health and welfare, including compliance under Pollutions and Environmental laws and Explosives Act, etc. Additionally, he is well acquainted with Environment Management System ISO 14001: 2004, Occupations, Health and Safety Series 18000:1999. As Legal head in APPM he has briefed and appeared along with Senior Advocate before Appellate Authority constituted under Water (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act. He retired from the services of Andhra Pradesh Paper Mills in 2011. As legal head he has handled important cases both in Labour and Civil and has experience in drafting and vetting Contracts, Agreements, Lease Agreement, Conveyance Deeds, , Affidavits and scrutiny of several legal and other documents, Preparing and settling Petitions, Appeals, Plaints, Written Statements, Rejoinders, Affidavits and Written Arguments etc. for submission/pleadings for various legal proceedings.

C K Devappa Gowda - Advocate

C.K. Devappa Gowda (CKD) is an Advocate and Labour Law expert. He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Science from the University of Mysore and a Degree in Bachelor of Law from Bengaluru respectively. He also holds a Diploma in Social Service Administration from the National Institute of Social Science, Bengaluru. After completing his studies, he had enrolled as a Advocate and initially practiced in the Civil Code attached to the office of BCP. He then worked as Personnel Officer in Chemicals and Textile Manufacturing Industries for 5 years. Thereafter took up employment in one of the largest Public Sector Bank. He has worked in different parts of the country and has extensive experience in the cross country IR domain. The significant part of his service was at corporate level overseeing and implementing HR policies and practices and management of IR. He has been a member of personnel committee of Indian Bank Association. After retirement from service, Mr. Gowda has been working with Mr. BC Prabhakar’s firm for the last 12 years. He has expertise in all areas of people management, drafting of documents relating to service matter including the settlements under the ID Act. He has dealt with all employment laws including appearance before the Courts, Tribunal and Authorities under the different Labour Laws. Mr. Gowda is one of the senior Labour Law experts at BCP Associates.

Srijatha Ghosh - POSH Specialist & Advocate

Srijata Ghosh serves as external member on the Internal Committee of several Companies across various sectors. She handles all kinds of POSH related matters including investigations and inquiries. She provides Training on Sexual Harassment across all verticals for Managers and Senior Management, General Awareness for all employees and Internal Committee members on the legislation (The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal Act, 2013). She also formulates Policies for Prevention of Sexual Harassment at Workplace (“POSH”) and advises Companies on setting up of their Internal Committees. Srijata is involved in providing Legal Advisory services on POSH and other labour law matters for various clients.

In her previous experience, she has extensively dealt with End-to-End Contract Management, Due Diligence, POSH Compliances, Legal Advisory, etc. Srijata worked with Companies like Accenture India Private Limited, Quess Corp., Capgemini Business Services (India) Limited and Pramata Knowledge Solutions Private Limited. Srijata has handled varied legal issues including drafting, vetting and negotiation of contracts, drafting policies of various organizations. She has resolved issues relating to employment laws and has worked closely with the HR teams. She has provided legal advisory services to senior management. She was also associated with Kolkata High Court in counselling clients with legal matters such as Property, Due Diligence etc. Srijata has worked in an LPO Service Firm, Manthan Legal Services Private Limited for Legal Research, depositions, medical summaries, demand drafting etc.

Srijata completed her B.A.LL.B from M. S. Ramaiah College of Law, Bangalore University in 2009. Srijata is a member of the Karnataka Bar Council since 2010. She is also a member of the Gender Sensitivity Sub Committee of Karnataka Employer Association (KEA).

Caroline Lobo - POSH Specialist & Advocate

Caroline Lobo has been with BCP Associates for the past 2+ years. She has been handling matters and Inquiries related to the POSH Act including conducting inquiries and trainings/awareness programmes for Senior Management, employees as well as members of the Internal Committee on the POSH Legislation (The Sexual Harassment of Women at Workplace (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 (“Act”) to address Workplace Harassment of Women. She is a member of the Internal Committee for many varied companies and organisations and has reviewed and scrutinized numerous hearings and inquiries on matters relating to sexual harassment at workplace.

She has also handled matters relating to employer-employee related Enquiries, wherein she has reviewed and conducted hearings and enquired into the matters and has guided the Internal Committee and provided guidance in providing recommendations to the management. She is also a Member of the Gender Sensitivity Sub-committee of Karnataka Employer Association (KEA).

Prior to joining BCP Associates, Caroline has has a wide range of experience in corporate, commercial and contract law, mergers and acquisition and has undertaken drafting, vetting, negotiating and finalizing legal and commercial transactions. She started her career in litigation then moved onto the Corporate sector. In the span of 13 years, she has worked at Chambers of Advocate Jayashree Murali, Krishnamurthy and Co. Legal Consultants, Colt Technology Services and Oracle India Pvt. Ltd. She always had a keen interest in Women and Child related issues. She has worked with Child Welfare Committee and NGOS’s. In addition, she has worked with Swasthi Health Resource and Centre, where she was the External member to the Internal Committee (IC). She worked closely with the committee in strategizing, planning, reviewing and implementing the assigned tasks, which included building material to raise awareness against sexual harassment at workplace. Further, she has been involved in conducting inquiries into matters related to sexual harassment at workplace.

Caroline earned her Law degree from University Law College, Bangalore, from where she graduated in the year 2005.

Manoj Kumar – Senior Associate

At BCP Associates, Manoj Kumar is involved in managing and conducting labour law compliance audits of principal employer and contractors. He is also involved in client co-ordination and conducting labour law training programs for vendors. He has conducted on-ground labour law audit for factories. Manoj also provides support in advising vendor clients on labour law queries. He completed B.A., LL.B. from BMS College of Law, Bangalore in 2016

Rashmitha Venkatachalam Das - POSH Specialist & Advocate

Rashmitha Venkatachalam Das is the External Member of the Internal Committee of several reputed Organizations across various sectors. Handling complex inquiries has been her forte and she is extremely passionate about it. She is actively involved in providing Training on Sexual Harassment (Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal) Act, 2013 across all verticals for Managers and Senior Management, General Awareness for all employees and Internal Committee members. Rashmitha possesses capabilities in delivering sessions in Hindi and Kannada, in addition to English. She has formulated Policies for Prevention of Sexual Harassment at Workplace (“POSH”), advised companies on setting up of their Committee. Rashmitha is involved in providing Legal Advisory services on POSH for various clients spread across diverse sectors. She has also been handling domestic enquiries for various clients. 

Rashmitha possesses experience both at Law Firms and Corporates in various capacities. She started her career at Krishnamurthy and Co, Legal Consultants and then moved on to work as an In- House Legal Counsel with Companies such as Biocon Limited, Columbia Asia Hospitals Private Limited, Adecco India Private Limited. With a long stint in the Corporate side, Rashmitha decided to pursue further education in Law with a specialization in Labour and Employment Laws. She has rich experience in drafting, vetting and negotiation of various types of contracts, providing legal opinions and has driven the team in formulating process and procedures and their implementation. She has drafted several employment related policies in Corporates. Rashmitha has been a part of various key committees in Organizations and assisted committees in scrutiny of documents pertaining to human organ transplant as well as clinical trials.

Rashmitha holds an LL.M. in Labour and Employment Laws from University Law College, Bangalore, which she completed in the year 2018 with Two Gold Medals. She is also a Rank Holder at the University. She has completed BA, LL.B. from Bangalore Institute of Legal Studies, Bangalore University in the year 2009. Rashmitha is a member of the Karnataka Bar Council since 2009 and also a member of the Gender Sensitivity Sub Committee of Karnataka Employer Association (KEA).

Manisha Vidyadhar – Senior Associate

At BCP Associates, Manisha Vidyadhar is involved in managing and conducting labour law compliance audits of principal employer and contractors. She is also involved in client co-ordination and conducting labour law training programs for vendors. She has conducted on-ground labour law audit for factories. Manisha also provides support in advising vendor clients on labour law queries.  She completed B.A., LL.B. from BMS College of Law, Bangalore in 2016.

Amrutha Ananth – Senior Associate

At BCP Associates, Amrutha Ananth is involved in managing and conducting labour law compliance audits of principal employer and contractors. She is also involved in client co-ordination and conducting labour law training programs for vendors. She has conducted on-ground labour law audit for factories. She also provides support in advising vendor clients on labour law queries.

Amrutha is also part of the labour law advisory and HR Policy practice and is actively involved in drafting opinions on various aspects of labour laws and formulate and review employment policies and procedure.

Amrutha completed B.A., LL.B. from Christ University, Bangalore in 2015. She is also a semi-qualified Company Secretary.

Sunil Arya – Principle Associate

At BCP Associates, Sunil Arya is part of the labour and employment law advisory and HR Policy practice and is actively involved in drafting and reviewing of employment contracts, opinions, HR policies, employee handbook, show cause notice, etc. for various clients spread across diverse sectors. He conducts training on labour and employment laws. Sunil is also involved in labour law compliance audits of principal employer and contractors and has conducted on-ground labour law audit for factories. In addition, he is engaged in knowledge creation and management of the firm and keenly writes on developments in labour and employment laws.

Prior to joining BCP Associates, Sunil has 10 years of post-qualification experience in diversified portfolios of advisory, drafting, policy analysis and dispute in the domains of contracts, general civil matters, employment law, competition law and construction arbitration matters. Sunil started his career as a Law Researcher in Delhi High Court. He moved on to be part of regulatory analysis team of CIRC, a unit of CUTS International. In addition, Sunil has been part of legal team of Jindal India Thermal Power Limited. He has also taught competition law, tax law and investment law at VIPS, Delhi.

Sunil holds LL.M. from The Indian Law Institute, Delhi. He is First Rank Holder in his thesis. He completed B.A, L.L.B. (Hons.) from I.P. University, Delhi. He also holds First Rank in P.G. Diploma in Competition Policy and Laws from The National Law University, Delhi.

Chandrakala K A – Principle Associate

At BCP Associates, Chandrakala has 12+ years of experience in conducting and managing labour law compliance audits of principal employer and contractors. She is also involved in co-ordination with many clients. She has conducted on-ground labour law audit for factories. She also provides support in advising vendors on labour law queries. Chandrakala is actively involved in research and providing valuable inputs to the firm pertaining to updation in labour law audit function.

Chandrakala started her career in litigation in chamber of Sri. Ashok where she was involved in drafting, pleading and appearance before Karnataka High Courts and lower courts on the criminal side.

Chandrakala completed B.A in Arts from Kuvempu University, Shimoga in 2003 and LL.B. from Mangalore University in 2006.

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